- 1610: Galileo
- 1676: Ole Rømer
- 1687: Isaac Newton
- 1781: William Herschel
- 1838: Friedrich Bessel
- 1861: William and Margaret Huggins
- 1912: Henrietta Leavitt
- 1917 Einstein
- 1920: Harlow Shapley
- 1929 Edwin Hubble
- 1948: Ralph Alpher
- 1949: Fred Hoyle
- 1963: Maarten Schmidt
- 1964: Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson
- 1978: Vera Rubin and Kent Ford
- 1989: Margaret Geller and John Huchra
- 1992: John Mather and George Smoot
- 1995: Robert Williams
- 1998: Saul Perlmutter and Brian Schmidt
- 2010: Wendy Freedman

# George Gamow

George Gamow |

George Gamow was born in Odessa, Ukraine, then part of the Soviet Union. He studied physics at the local university and in 1923 went to Leningrad to study with Alexander Friedmann. Unfortunately, Friedmann became ill and died before his work was acknowledged, and Gamow was deprived of a creative teacher. Gamov emigrated to the United States in 1934 where he continued to develop the Big Bang theory. In 1943 he was joined by a graduate student, Ralph Alpher, who had the mathematical skills needed to calculate what would happen at the subatomic level immediately after the Big Bang.